The Thoughts and Adventures of Sarah Harris

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Archive for the tag “Gregory of Nyssa”

Women of Virtue: Makrina the Younger

I recently came across this post which has become quite popular in the social media context. The photographer decided that instead of dressing up her daughter in princess dresses for her 5th birthday portrait session, she would dress her up like REAL women who have made a difference in the world – in an attempt to show her daughter what real women she could strive to become.

Here she has her daughter taking after Amelia Earhart:

li-460-amelia-emma

This got me thinking, as I’m sure it has many, what women in history I would want my future daughter (Lord willing) to look up to as role models. So as I come across amazing women in history, I’ll post them here, specifically addressing why she should look up to them as role models. Women of virtue that she can take after. So for starters:

Fresco in Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev from the 11th century

Makrina the Younger (Macrina, Μακρίνα) 330 – 379 AD. Died around age 49.

I won’t go at length to describe her life, but rather briefly sketch her accomplishments and then address my favorite things about this woman that I think we can all learn from, especially our children. So first, to give a VERY brief sketch of her life, she was the sister of St. Basil and St. Gregory of Nyssa and had a total of 9 siblings of whom she was the oldest. When she was young, her father arranged a marriage for her for when she came of age. However, her betrothed died before she was old enough to marry. Instead of looking for another suitor (there were many since she was a very beautiful woman) she chose to remain a virgin “since in the nature of things there was but one marriage, as there is one birth and one death. She persisted that the man who had been linked to her by her parents’ arrangement was not dead, but that she considered him who lived to God, thanks to the hope of the resurrection, to be absent only, not dead; it was wrong not to keep faith with the bridegroom who was away” (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/macrina.asp#life).

She helped raise her siblings, especially the youngest, St. Peter. After her father died, she led her mother into a life of simplicity. Although they were a family of means, Makrina and her mother simplified their lives so that there was no distinction between themselves and their maidservants. Together they established a convent on their estate. She is thought to be the spiritual leader in her family and had great influence over her brothers. She was well educated and in his work, her brother St. Gregory calls her the Teacher and relays a conversation they had just before her death concerning the body and soul in the resurrection.

What I like about her:

She died well. Macrina was not afraid of death. She understood that Christ trampled over death and defeated it and that the passing from this life was not the end. Rather, one was merely absent for a time and would one day be reunited.  These beautiful words she said during her last days which her brother, Gregory, recorded:

” You, O Lord, have freed us from the fear of death. You have made the end of this life the beginning to us true life. For a season you rest our bodies in sleep and awaken them again at the last trump. You give our earth, which You have fashioned with Your hands, to the earth to keep in safety. One day You will take again what You have given, transfiguring with immortality and grace our mortal and unsightly remains. You have saved us from the curse and from sin, having become both for our sakes. You have broken the heads of the dragon who had seized us with his jaws, in the yawning gulf of disobedience. You have shown us the way of resurrection, having broken the gates of hell, and brought to naught him who had the power of death-the devil. You have given a sign to those that fear You in the symbol of the Holy Cross, [984 D] to destroy the adversary and save our life. O God eternal, to Whom I have been attached from my mother’s womb, Whom my soul has loved with all its strength, to Whom I have dedicated both my flesh and my soul from my youth up until now-do give me an angel of light to conduct me to the place of refreshment, where is the water of rest, in the bosom of the holy Fathers. You that broke the flaming sword and restored to Paradise the man that was crucified with You and implored Your mercies, remember me, too, in Your kingdom; because I, too, was crucified with You, having nailed my flesh to the cross for fear of You, and of Your judgments have I been afraid. Let not the terrible chasm separate me from Your elect. Nor let [986 A] the slanderer stand against me in the way; nor let my sin be found before Your eyes, if in anything I have sinned in word or deed or thought, led astray by the weakness of our nature. O You who have power on earth to forgive sins, forgive me, that I may be refreshed and may be found before You when I put off my body, without defilement on my soul. But may my soul be received into Your hands spotless and undefiled, as an offering before You” (I changed some old English words such as “Thy” and “Thou”; http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/macrina.asp#life).

macrina

 

What we can learn from her:

She lived out her roles as both a mother and a teacher. Although Makrina was well educated and apparently could even rival her brother in philosophical discussions as seen here, she did not at all neglect her role as mother. She had no children of her own, of course. But she raised her brother Peter like her own. St. Gregory says: “[She] took him soon after birth from the nurse’s breast and reared him herself and educated [972 C] him on a lofty system of training, practicing him from infancy in holy studies, so as not to give his soul leisure to turn to vain things. Thus having become all things to the lad – father, teacher, tutor, mother, giver of all good advice-she produced such results that before the age of boyhood had passed, when he was yet a stripling in the first bloom of tender youth, he aspired to the high mark of philosophy” (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/macrina.asp#life).

In her brother’s account of their conversation about the resurrection we see another side of Makrina. She is not just mother. She is also a woman who is highly education in philosophy and scripture. She has spent her time on this earth devoted to God and in pursuit of Him. This was done, not neglecting her siblings, but done alongside her role as mother. The two aspects of her life were intertwined. The things that she learned both philosophically and spiritually, she joyfully passed along to her siblings. She desired that they would also pursue God, and so she made great effort and sacrifice to make sure this occurred.

I think the thing our young daughters can take away from St. Makrina, is that as women we impact others as both mother to our children and to those in our community. Women are not confined solely to the role of mother nor solely to a career. A woman has an important role in the home because she is able to instil virtues into the sons and daughters in her life, who will in turn impact others. In that sense, there is great value and worth in being a good wife, running an orderly home, and raising children in the disciplines of the faith. A woman is also highly capable of making an impact on her community and extended family in other ways – whether it be though the study of theology and running a convent as Makrina has done, or though some other way. My daughter can impact the world through art, as a musician, or as a scientist. The important thing to note is that those who surround her in life (in the home and in work) are the people she is shaping, and that is an important role to have.

Death is not something we have to fear. We might be inclined to say that children don’t really worry about such things, but I think it’s important that we teach our children about death. When I was younger, although it didn’t continually worry me, I certainly feared death. It was a place I did not know or understand. A place where we are a different sort of people and where our purpose was to sing praises to God. It seemed like a place where I would feel trapped and bored and I really did not want to go there – which I was ashamed to admit. I remember being taught in Sunday School that we should love and desire to be with God more than those here on earth. But how was I to love a Person I had never seen more than those I knew personally? He was distant, and though I knew some truths about Him, and though I talked to Him, and read His Words, the distance still led me to fear life with Him, apart from those I loved…where all we did was sing to Him. I know I am not the only one who had this experience as a child. This may in fact be what numerous people felt as a child.  And though, perhaps, “I know better” now, the way you are trained as a child is formative, and it carries over into adulthood.

For this reason, I think conversations with our children about death are important. How will they come to think well about death if we instill images within them are frightening? Hell seemed awful as a child, but heaven didn’t seem that great either (perhaps using images like fire and streets of gold with children who take things very literally, is not the best thing to do). We don’t know a whole lot about what the after life will look like, but we do know, as Makrina says in her dialogue with Gregory, that the resurrection is the restoration of our bodies to their original nature (http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf205.x.iii.ii.html). We also know that God is going to restore all of creation, not just our souls. The God-Man is not coming again to smite the earth, He is coming again to bring about total and complete restoration to both earth and heaven (Romans 8: 18-24; Colossians 1:15-19). The simple fact that (the life after) death does not mean going to some unknown place but rather, means that I will be here in this world as part of God’s restored Kingdom, brings about peace and hope. We would do well to talk about death with our children, that they might have the courage Makrina had because she understood that the body would be raised in all its glory. Death no longer has a hold on man.

The Atoning Work of Christ: The Christus Victor Theory

What is Christus Victor?

While there are different versions of the Christus Victor view, the main idea is that mankind has been held captain by sin, Satan, and death and that Christ came to defeat those evil forces so that we might be reconciled to Him. In each of the different authors who I will present, you will see some slight variations, but in general, this is the outline of the Christus Victor view.

Although this viewpoint is rare in the protestant tradition, one pastor who supports  this view is Greg Boyd of Woodland Hills Church. In the book The Nature of the Atonement: Four Views, Boyd contributes a chapter to defend and explain the Christus Victor view. Boyd emphasizes that Satan has dominion over this world and is holding us captive. Therefore, salvation, in part, is deliverance from Satan.  Boyd analyzes Acts 26:17-18 which states:

“I will rescue you from your people and from the Gentiles—to whom I am sending you to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me” (NRSV).

In light of this passage, Boyd states that because God has set the Gentiles free from the power of Satan, “they would be in a position to ‘receive forgiveness of sins’ as well as a place among the community that is set apart (sanctified) by God. Salvation clearly involves forgiveness of sin, but this forgiveness is itself rooted in a person getting freed from Satan’s grip” (Boyd, The Christus Victor View of the Atonement, 3).

Salvation is not necessarily from God’s wrath or hell, rather, salvation is something that affects the whole of creation. Christus Victor, as presented by Boyd, is not about “my personal salvation”, it is about the salvation of the entire world of which we are only a small part (4).

Even Christ’s life was part of this conquering of Satan and evil powers. Boyd gives numerous examples of this, for instance, when Christ heals on the Sabbath he is “waging war against the powers and exposing the systemic evil that fuels religious legalism and oppression. He was conquering evil with love” (5).

“Everything about Jesus’ life must be understood as an act of defiance against the powers, precisely because everything about his life was an act of self-sacrificial love” (5).

While in the penal substitution view, Christ died as our substitute and took God’s wrath upon Himself in our stead. In the Christus Victor view, Christ died as our substitute and took upon himself all the natural consequences of sin that we would have experienced, that is: death and suffering.

While the Christus Victor view is often presented as the idea that God bought off Satan – that Jesus was the ransom payment to the devil, Boyd states that this idea of ransom in scripture is not meant to be taken literally.  “The word ‘ransom’ simply means ‘the price of release’ and was most commonly used when purchasing slaves from the slave market. Hence, the Christus Victor model can simply take this to mean that Christ did whatever it took to release us from slavery to the powers” (6).

I do want to make mention of one other person who has greatly influenced the rise of Christus Victor, that is Gustav Aulén who wrote in 1931. His book is considered a classic and he provides a historical analysis arguing that the traditional viewpoint of the Church Fathers is the theory of Christus Victor and that it wasn’t until Anselm’s theory of Penal substitution that Christus Victor became less known. Aulén’s book is well worth the read.

Where did it originate?

Although in the first several centuries after the time of Christ, there was no theory called “Christus Victor,” strong elements of the view can be seen throughout the Church Fathers from as early as the 3rd century if not before. Some of the Fathers that presented this view of the atonement were Irenaeus, Gregory of Nyssa, Athanasius, and Origen, to name a few.

For this post, I intend to focus mainly on Gregory of Nyssa’s  (335-395 AD) explanation of the atonement found in The Great Catechism because more than the other fathers, he delves into this idea “tricking” Satan which is often one of the biggest criticisms of Christus Victor.

Gregory’s line of thought starts out by acknowledging that man has been deceived by “the great advocate and inventor of vice,” Satan (XXI). The Devil spread the glamour of beauty over the hook of vice, and man, in his ability to freely choose, took the bait. Man became “fettered prisoners” and in “bondage of slavery” to Satan (XV). God, having made man in his image took pity on mankind and desired to free them from their plight.

Gregory goes on to describe Christ and his great miracles and how when Satan saw that Christ had such power, he “saw also in Him an opportunity for an advance, in the exchange, upon the value of what he held. For this reason he chooses Him as a ransom for those who were shut up in the prison of death” (XXIII). In exchange for mankind who were captive by sin and death, Satan accepted Christ as a ransom:

“In order to secure that the ransom in our behalf might be easily accepted by him who required it, the Deity was hidden under the veil of our nature, that so, as with ravenous fish, the hook of the Deity might be gulped down along with the bait of flesh, and thus, life being introduced into the house of death, and light shining in darkness, that which is diametrically opposed to light and life might vanish; for it is not in the nature of darkness to remain when light is present, or of death to exist when life is active” (XXIV).

And so, what then, is atonement for Gregory? It is the Christ victorious in that He triumphs over Satan so that life is brought to those who were once doomed to die, it is cleansing for those who were once polluted with sin.  He does this by paying a ransom to Satan which Satan eagerly receives not knowing that Christ is God.

The main critique of course, is that in veiling the deity of Christ, God deceives Satan. This seems to go against God’s character. Gregory later defends his case against this notion, but I will not be going into depth on it here. The reason being, that the Christus Victor theory works perfectly well without God having deceived Satan. As Boyd says, the idea of ransom in scripture was likely not meant to be taken literally.

The idea of the atonement for Gregory continues even further and does not stop merely at Christus Victor but we’ll look at his ideas as well as other Church Fathers ideas on this in the next blog posts.

What was the cultural context?

St. Gregory was, of course, influenced by the culture around him, and wrote The Great Catechism mainly as a logical explanation of belief so that Christians could defend their faith. Gregory was largely influenced by another Church Father, Origen, who also held to the belief that the ransom could not have been paid to God (because God was not holding sinners captive) so the ransom had to have been paid to the Devil.

What did the cross achieve under this view?

Christ lived a life of love to actively fight against the forces of evil, Christ died to fulfill the law of sin and death, and in his resurrection, he defeated sin death, and Satan so that they no longer hold power over us. We, in participating in that death, are able to live in participation in the life of Christ.

Which scriptures support this view?

1 Corinthians 15:24-26 – Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, after he has destroyed every ruler and every authority and power. For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is death.

Romans 5:17-19 – If, because of the one man’s trespass, death exercised dominion through that one, much more surely will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness exercise dominion in life through the one man, Jesus Christ. Therefore just as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all. For just as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous

Romans 6:9-11 – We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. The death he died, he died to sin, once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God. So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.

Acts 20:28 – Keep watch over yourselves and over all the flock, of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God that he obtained with the blood of his own Son.

Hebrews 2:14-15 – Since, therefore, the children share flesh and blood, he himself likewise shared the same things, so that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by the fear of death.

All Scripture was taken from the NRSV.

What are some common criticisms?

  • It makes sin an objective force outside of man’s nature, eradicating personal guilt and need for forgiveness and  grace.
  • Satan is given too much power, even an equal to God.
  • In some versions of Christus Victor, God seems to deceive Satan which would go against the good character of God.
  • This view puts too much emphasis on Christ as Divine rather than Christ as human.

This blog post is the third blog in a series on the different atonement theories. My first post on “penal substitution” can be found here. The second post, on “moral influence theory” can be found here. The next post, on the recapitulation theory can be found here. Please feel free to comment below with thoughts, criticisms, or opinions in regards to the posts.

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